Nordic Journal of Language Teaching and Learning <p>Focus and Scope</p> <p><em>Nordic Journal of Language Teaching and Learning</em> (<em>NJLTL</em>) is an international open access journal which publishes scholarly articles on subjects related to teaching and learning foreign languages, particularly in the Nordic context.&nbsp;The journal promotes research and professional development work across the Nordic countries, although articles within the fields of foreign language learning and teaching from outside this region are also accepted. Articles focussing on foreign language teaching and learning from interdisciplinary perspectives will also be considered. Articles&nbsp;may be written in Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, English, French, German, Spanish.</p> <p><em>NJLTL</em> has two sections. The main section contains double-blind, peer-reviewed articles. Our forum section features shorter articles of general interest such as book reviews, opinion pieces, lectures, professional development reports or contributions from educators and students about hands-on experiences in the classroom.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> University of Agder en-US Nordic Journal of Language Teaching and Learning 2703-8629 <div> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <br> <p>a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <br> <p>b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <br> <p>c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> </div> Editorial Susan Erdmann Thorsten Päplow Lenka Garshol Eli-Marie Danbolt Drange Copyright (c) 2022 Susan Erdmann; Thorsten Päplow, Lenka Garshol, Eli-Marie Danbolt Drange 2022-10-20 2022-10-20 10 1 i ii 10.46364/njltl.v10i1.1113 University language students' motivations for their language of study <p>While there is abundant research on motivation in second-language learning, we know little about what motivations students may have for choosing a specific language of study in the Norwegian university context. The number of students who apply to English study programs every year is high, while the numbers for the traditional foreign languages beyond English, especially German and French, are concerningly low. The present study surveyed students in their first year of university language study, asking key questions about their reasons for choosing their language of study. Overall findings are that students of English are particularly instrumentally motivated, believing that English will be useful for future work. Students of French and Spanish, on the other hand, are more affectively motivated, while German students fall in between the other languages in responses to questions of motivation. While all students generally feel that knowledge of foreign languages beyond English is important, Spanish students were especially consistent in this response. In terms of interest in sub-disciplines of university language study, all student groups were relatively similar in showing a stronger interest in learning about the cultural and social aspects of countries where the language is spoken compared to literature formal aspects of language. The main conclusion is that motivations may be different for studying different foreign languages beyond English, and that in order to recruit more students to academic language programs, focusing on each specific language and its potential motivations is necessary.</p> <p>Keywords: foreign language, motivation, language studies, English, French, Spanish, German</p> Anne Dahl Copyright (c) 2022 Anne Dahl 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 10 1 1 24 10.46364/njltl.v10i1.1013 Intended or unintended consequences? Assessing the ways in which the National Tests of English are implemented and acted on in Norwegian schools <p>This article reports on an investigation into the role the National Tests of English (NTE) and their results play in Norwegian eighth-grade classrooms. Previous and current opposition to the tests from some teachers and pupils gave rise to the question of whether the tests are being used as recommended, based on documents produced by the Directorate of Education and Training. The study proceeded from the premise that consequential validity (Messick, 1994) could be under threat in cases of clear discrepancies between intended and actual consequences and uses of the tests and their results. A mixed methods study was conducted among eighth-grade teachers of English, consisting of a quantitative digital survey and qualitative, semi-structured interviews. In total, 43 English teachers participated in the study.</p> <p>Results indicated a lack of uniformity in the uses of the NTE, with both the nature and levels of engagement in individual schools being determined by factors such as principals’ concerns, time constraints, parents’ interest levels and teachers’ own views on the usefulness of the tests and the results. Validity is threatened when unintended consequences take the place of intended consequences (Chalhoub-Deville, 2015).&nbsp; The study reveals that, in around half of the schools involved, this seems to be happening, partly ascribable to a lack of time and/or interest in the tests. As respondents reported that schools’ allocations of time and resources to the tests are largely determined by school principals, a follow-up study with principals is recommended.</p> Craig Grocott Copyright (c) 2022 Craig Grocott 2022-09-26 2022-09-26 10 1 25 51 10.46364/njltl.v10i1.1017 Development of written L2 French: a longitudinal study of learners in the Norwegian school context <p><span lang="EN-GB">This paper presents a longitudinal multiple case study that focused on the development of the written interlanguage of four learners over their three years of learning French as a second language (L2) in upper secondary school in Norway. The development of macro-level syntactic complexity and the development of micro-level measures of accuracy in morphosyntactic features specific to written French were examined. In order to trace development of syntactic complexity, we used two well-established measures in the SLA literature: T-unit length and the number of dependent clauses per T-unit (Wolfe-Quintero et al<em>.</em>, 1998; Verspoor et al<em>.</em>, 2017), whereas the </span><span lang="EN-GB">morphosyntactic features representing the basis for our analysis of accuracy</span><span lang="EN-GB"> were gender and number in the noun phrase in French. The results illustrated that the written French of all four learners clearly became more syntactically complex over the three years of the study. As regards the development at the morphosyntactic level, progress was less straight forward in the individual learners, and the developmental tendencies varied according to the nature of the features studied.</span></p> Anne-Kathrine Woldsnes Copyright (c) 2022 Anne-Kathrine Woldsnes 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 10 1 52 78 10.46364/njltl.v10i1.991 Evidence-based support for effective classroom interaction and language use in primary English instruction <p>Teachers’ use of the target language is a crucial aspect of instructed language learning, especially so in the case of English teaching in primary school, which aims to foster motivation, confidence and oral engagement in English, but also support the overall development of each child. Although contemporary research rejects exclusive target-language use, monolingual approaches are still regarded good practice in many educational settings, as they are thought to promote learning. Yet, language learning is a cognitive, but also a social and emotional endeavor, and language use in the classroom therefore needs to be considered beyond the cognitive and linguistic dimensions of language input. The professional discourse, however, lacks a comprehensive and nuanced way of describing the various classroom functions, consequences and motives that may underpin the use of the target language and the first language. The <em>Teaching through Interactions</em> framework (Hamre et al., 2013) was developed to capture teacher effectiveness and quality in primary education in general. This article argues that examining language use through the socioemotional, organizational and instructional domains of instruction that are outlined in this model, facilitates our understanding of the various considerations at play in the language classroom and highlights the close link between quality and language use in the primary classroom. The framework may be useful for teachers, teacher educators and student teachers to identify, systematize and share their deliberations in relation to language choice, and advance the professional discourse at all levels of education.</p> Maria Nilsson Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Nilsson 2022-10-06 2022-10-06 10 1 84 105 10.46364/njltl.v10i1.977 Bokrecension: Eugen Ruges Metropol (2019/2021) Thorsten Päplow Copyright (c) 2022 Thorsten Päplow 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 10 1 106 108 10.46364/njltl.v10i1.1059 Erfahrungsbericht: Plenum versus Gruppenarbeit im digitalen literarischen Gespräch im DaF-Studium. Sichtweisen von Studierenden zur neuen Lehr-Lern-Landschaft Maren Eckart Anneli Fjordevik Copyright (c) 2022 Maren Eckart, Anneli Fjordevik 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 10 1 109 111 10.46364/njltl.v10i1.1049 Reseña El análisis crítico del discurso y la Pedagogía crítica. Susana Ester Mellerup Copyright (c) 2022 Susana Ester Mellerup 2022-10-20 2022-10-20 10 1 112 114 10.46364/njltl.v10i1.1041