Nordic Journal of Language Teaching and Learning <p>Focus and Scope</p> <p><em>Nordic Journal of Language Teaching and Learning</em> (<em>NJLTL</em>) is an international open access journal which publishes scholarly articles on subjects related to teaching and learning foreign languages, particularly in the Nordic context.&nbsp;The journal promotes research and professional development work across the Nordic countries, although articles within the fields of foreign language learning and teaching from outside this region are also accepted. Articles focussing on foreign language teaching and learning from interdisciplinary perspectives will also be considered. Articles&nbsp;may be written in Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, English, French, German, Spanish.</p> <p><em>NJLTL</em> has two sections. The main section contains double-blind, peer-reviewed articles. Our forum section features shorter articles of general interest such as book reviews, opinion pieces, lectures, professional development reports or contributions from educators and students about hands-on experiences in the classroom.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <div> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <br> <p>a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <br> <p>b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <br> <p>c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> </div> (Susan Erdmann) (Henrik Martin Hansen Torjusen) Fri, 25 Feb 2022 02:07:48 -0800 OJS 60 Editorial Vol.9 No.2 Susan Erdmann; Eli-Marie Danbolt Drange, Lenka Garshol, Thorsten Päplow Copyright (c) 2022 Susan Erdmann; Eli-Marie Danbolt Drange, Lenka Garshol, Thorsten Päplow Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 The link between multilingualism, language learning and open-mindedness in secondary school students in Norway <p>A positive link between open-mindedness and multilingualism suggested in intercultural psychology research (e.g., Dewaele &amp; Botes, 2020; Korzilius et al., 2011; Dewaele &amp; Oudenhoven, 2009) has also been implicitly assumed in Norway’s Core Curriculum (NDET, 2017) and in the curricula for English (NDET, 2019a) and Foreign Languages (NDET, 2019b). However, little empirical research has been conducted to explore how becoming multilingual, especially through learning foreign languages at school, can be connected to the development of students’ open-mindedness. The present study addresses this gap by exploring open-mindedness in lower secondary school students (n=593) learning one or two foreign languages in school. In addition, other factors related to students’ multilingualism, such as their multilingual identity, migration background, experience living abroad and having friends with home languages other than Norwegian, are also considered to better understand the complex relationship between open-mindedness and multilingualism in the school context. By analysing the data collected with the Ungspråk questionnaire (Haukås et al., 2021a), the study reveals no particular relationship between open-mindedness and students’ migration background and experience of living abroad. However, it indicates that open-mindedness is positively linked to L3 learning at school, multilingual identity and having friends who use other languages at home. These findings have significant pedagogical implications suggesting that promoting learning a second foreign language at lower secondary school, developing students’ self-identification as multilingual and encouraging the interaction with peers speaking further languages may contribute to the enhancement of open-mindedness among students.</p> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Keywords</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">: <em>open-mindedness, multilingualism, multilingual identity, foreign language learning, L2, L3</em></span></p> Irina Tiurikova, Åsta Haukås, André Storto Copyright (c) 2021 Irina Tiurikova, Åsta Haukås, André Storto Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Multilingualism in curriculum reform (LK20) and teachers’ perceptions: Mind the gap? <p>The present study investigates the dichotomous relationship between the official language policies celebrating multilingualism in education on the one hand, and the practice field facing practical challenges concerning their students’ multilingualism on the other hand (Cummins &amp; Persad, 2014; Lundberg, 2019). Document analysis of LK20 and focus groups of teachers were used to investigate two research questions; <em>1) </em>Which aspects of multilingualism are represented in the core curriculum and in the subject curricula of English, Foreign languages and Norwegian in LK20? and <em>2)</em> How are aspects of multilingualism in LK20 perceived by teachers of English, Foreign languages and Norwegian?</p> <p>The findings indicate that there is a gap between the intentions of the ideological curriculum and the perceived and experiential curricula of teachers and students (Goodlad, 1979). When LK20 states that “All pupils <em>shall experience that being proficient in a number of languages is a resource, </em>both in school and society at large”, the teachers report that this normative assumption may place too much responsibility on different stakeholders such as students, as some are reluctant to display their multilingual repertoires in class. Furthermore, although the intentions at the ideological level of LK20 seem clear, the operational level remains unclear, since <em>how</em> this claim is to be applied in the classroom is not specified. This, in addition to the fact that multilingualism is conceptualized in a different way in the three language subject curricula of English, Foreign Languages and Norwegian, may explain why teachers report that, despite being positive towards linguistic diversity, they are insecure concerning the operationalization of multilingualism in their classrooms.</p> <p>Keywords: m<em>ultilingualism, plurilingualism, operationalizations of multilingualism, language policies</em></p> Gro-Anita Myklevold, Heike Speitz Copyright (c) 2021 Gro-Anita Myklevold Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Error Analysis in Academic Writing. A Case Study of BA Students Enrolled in a Norwegian Didactics Course <p>This article investigates different types of language errors performed in a written summative exam by ten BA students enrolled in an elective Norwegian Didactics course in Romania. The corpus comprising the students’ exam papers was analysed qualitatively to identify various types of errors. The theoretical model suggested by Gass &amp; Selinker (1994) was used to discuss issues of error analysis. A survey was then conducted to receive student feedback on the reported errors in the texts. Findings indicate that students make both inter-lingual and intra-lingual errors and that error analysis can be helpful when designing L2 Norwegian instructional materials.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>error analysis, foreign language teaching, language transfer, language distance, writing skills, Norwegian, Romanian.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Raluca Pop Copyright (c) 2022 Raluca Pop Wed, 05 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 A framework for characterizing communication-oriented ELT textbooks <p>Textbooks hold a fundamental position in English Language Teaching (ELT). Today, their main aim is to contribute to the development of the learner’s communicative competence. This paper sets out to set the basis for constructing a framework for characterizing ELT textbooks, in terms of their opportunities to promote communicative competence. In order to provide a theoretical foundation for the framework, it first introduces the notions of input (Krashen, 1989) and output (Swain &amp; Lapkin, 1995). Then, it presents two influential models of communicative competence, i.e., those of Canale and Swain (1980), and the Common European Framework for Reference of Languages (Council of Europe, 2001, 2018). Following that, it presents two significantly quoted sets of principles for the study of learning materials in Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), i.e., the principles of Richards and Rodgers (2014) and Nation (2007). Building on the models and principles, the paper suggests eleven criteria for characterizing communication-oriented ELT textbooks, covering input in the form of topics and texts, and output in the form of activities. A short discussion of the main affordances of the suggested framework is provided at the end of the article.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: communicative competence, ELT textbooks, textbook analysis, communicative language teaching (CLT).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nahúm Misael Tórrez Copyright (c) 2022 Nahúm Misael Tórrez Wed, 05 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 Norwegian in-service teachers’ perspectives on language corpora in teaching English <p>This study aims to explore potential reasons why the use of the tools and methods of corpus linguistics are not prevalent in English teaching in Norway, using the research question What do in-service English teachers in Norway find useful about corpora and what do they find challenging? The study provides interview data from in-service teachers, contributing to our understanding of the in-service perspective on corpora. The research design consists of teaching corpus use in seminars for in-service English teachers (featuring LancsLex, the concordancer AntConc and the OANC), integrated into a language course that is part of a further education programme, and semi-structured interviews with four of the students who took the course, during which they also interacted with Netspeak, SKELL and COCA. As with previous research, the in-service teachers found corpora particularly useful for teaching and learning vocabulary, and found challenges to use which are categorized here as usability (criticism of AntConc), IT challenges (a lack of IT skills among teachers), learner-corpus interaction challenges (the complexity of software and concordance lines for pupils; pupil uninterest in language), and lack of teacher need (mistakes being “obvious” to teachers in the lower years). The article discusses some implications of these findings.</p> <p>Keywords: <em>English language teaching, pedagogical corpus application, corpora &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Barry Kavanagh Copyright (c) 2022 Barry Kavanagh Wed, 05 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 Reflexiones sobre la idea de comunicatividad para la clase de español como lengua extranjera en Noruega <p>This article is to be conceived as a reflection on communicative oriented foreign language teaching in Norwegian compulsory education. More specifically, the objective is to succinctly examine some key aspects in the implementation of a communicative approach in the Spanish as a foreign language classroom. Based on existing research on foreign language teaching in Norway, it can be affirmed that despite the communicative paradigm initiated half a century ago, the implementation of communicative oriented practices in lower secondary school is limited. This is due, among many other factors, to the strong impact that language teacher schooling beliefs exert on teaching practices over the theoretical principles upon which the curricular reform is based (<em>Kunnskapsløftet-K06</em>). Thus, the success of the recent curricular renovation (<em>Fagfornyelsen-K20</em>) lies in part on how language teacher development programs, both pre-service and in-service, convey the communicative oriented teaching principles to engage teachers in a critical reflexive process of cognition articulation. This reflection examines these principles and suggests an eventual approach for teacher development programs to facilitate the challenge that students face when establishing connections between theory and practice and the articulation of their cognitions.</p> <p>Keywords: <em>teacher cognition, Spanish as a foreign language, curriculum reform, teacher development, communicative language teaching.</em></p> <p><strong>RESUMEN</strong></p> <p>Este artículo se concibe como una reflexión acerca de la idea central de comunicatividad en la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras en la educación reglada noruega. Más concretamente, el objetivo es examinar sucintamente los aspectos clave en la implementación de un enfoque comunicativo en la clase de español como lengua extranjera (ELE). Desde la conjunta investigación en didáctica de lenguas extranjeras en Noruega, se constata que cinco décadas después del inicio del paradigma comunicativo, la enseñanza de lenguas en la escuela secundaria noruega muestra una limitada orientación comunicativa. Uno de los factores que explican este fenómeno es la fuerte influencia que ejercen las creencias de los profesores originadas en su periodo de escolarización por encima de los principios teóricos sobre los que se sustenta la reforma educativa vigente (<em>Kunnskapsløftet-K06</em>). El éxito de la nueva renovación educativa (<em>Fagfornyelsen-K20</em>) radica parcialmente en cómo los programas de desarrollo docente, tanto de manera inicial como continua, vehiculan los principios de la enseñanza comunicativa para que los profesores participen en procesos de reflexión crítica en la articulación de sus creencias. Esta reflexión examina estos principios y sugiere un eventual acercamiento en los programas de formación que facilite el reto al que se enfrentan los estudiantes de relacionar conceptos teóricos con su implementación práctica y la articulación de sus creencias.</p> Xavier Llovet Vilá Copyright (c) 2021 Xavier Llovet Wed, 05 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 Få TV-serier inn i engelskfaget Jonas Velde Copyright (c) 2021 Jonas Velde Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Bokrecension: Dörte Hansens Altes Land (Körsbärslandet) och Mittagsstunde (Middagstimmen) Thorsten Päplow Copyright (c) 2022 Thorsten Päplow Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800